| Children's and Youthful Criminality in the USA
|Children's and Youthful
Criminality in the USA
In 1956 г,
in the USA
left the book “Youthful criminality” under edition S.Meklelana's Grant. This
book represents the collection of articles of the American authors who are
engaged in research of a problem of children's and youthful criminality in its
various aspects. In the book opinions of responsible statesmen, lawyers,
psychiatrists, sociologists, writers, teachers, parents and representatives of
other groups of the population at a problem of criminality among minors in the USA are stated.
In the present information those
opinions which represent the greatest interest for the Soviet reader are short
stated only. In particular, considerable interest is caused by sights of some
the American authors of the reasons of children's and youthful criminality and
about methods with which help, in their opinion, ostensibly it is possible to
achieve decrease in growth of criminality among minors in the USA.
| Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
|Chapter 1 Introduction
Exploration - a historical
phenomenon. As craft, it is perhaps not the oldest, but surely the second. The
variety of views of various historians on the social nature of intelligence and
espionage combines them into one - they all agree on the fact that the secret
services are at least 33 centuries. More precisely, they were born when the war
began. In any military conflict, whether primitive slaughter or the Second
World War, in varying degrees, of course, there is a tactical ruse, calculated
to deceive the enemy. But in order to deceive and defeat the enemy, you need to
know it. As a historical phenomenon, intelligence and espionage, as well as the
war in different times takes different forms. Types and characters of scouts
and spies change their color depending on the social and political system which
they serve. History piled century in his piggy bank.
| British Cuisine
Some people criticize English food.
They say it's unimaginable, boring, tasteless, it's chips with everything and
totally overcooked vegetables. The basic ingredients, when fresh, are so full
of flavour that British haven't had to invent sauces to disguise their natural
taste. What can compare with fresh pees or new potatoes just boiled and served
with butter? Why drown spring lamb in wine or cream and spices, when with just
one or two herbs it is absolutely delicious?
If you ask foreigners to name some
typically English dishes, they will probably say "Fish and chips"
then stop. It is disappointing, but true that, there is no tradition in England
of eating in restaurants, because the food doesn't lend itself to such
preparation. English cooking is found at home. So it is difficult to a good
English restaurant with a reasonable prices.
In most cities in Britain you'll find Indian,
Chinese, French and Italian restaurants.
| British Homes
|There are 22 million homes in Britain — big
homes and small homes, old cottages and new buildings, houses and flats.
(Americans say "apartment" but British people say "flat").
Many British people love old houses and these are often more expensive than
modern ones. They also love gardening and you will see gardens everywhere you
go: in towns, villages and out in the country.
Some are very small with just one
tree and a few flowers. Others are enormous with plenty of flowers and enough
vegetables and fruit trees. Two third of the families in Britain
own their houses.
Millions of these houses are the
same with two or three bedrooms and a bathroom upstairs, dining-room and
kitchen downstairs. To pay for their house, home owners borrow money from a
"building society" and pay back a little every month.
| British Literature
Britain gave the world a lot of talented people. Many
famous writers and poets were born and lived in Great Britain.
One of the best known English
playwrights was William Shakespeare. He draw ideas for his tragedies and
comedies from the history of England
and ancient Rome.
Many experts consider Shakespeare the greatest writer and the greatest
playwright in English language. William Shakespeare wrote 37 plays which may be
divided into: comedies (such as "A Midsummer Night's Dream"),
tragedies (such as "Hamlet", "Othello", "King
Lear", "Macbeth") and historical plays (such as "Richard
II", "Henry V", "Julius Caesar", "Antony and
Robert Burns represents the
generation of Romantic writers. In his poems he described with love and
understanding the simple life he knew. Among his well-known poems are
"Halloween", "The Jolly Beggars", "To a Mouse".
Lord George Gordon Byron.
| My Week-day
get up at a quarter to seven. I jump out of bed, switch on the radio and do my
morning exercises to the radio music. Then I go to the bathroom, wash myself
and clean my teeth with, a tooth-brush. This does not take me much time, not
more than ten or fifteen minutes. Then I dress and sit down to table to have my
breakfast. I usually have a cup of tea or coffee, an egg and bread and butter.
breakfast I go to the technical school. As I live far away, I go by bus or by
metro. It takes me more time to go by bus. If I have little time, I go by
metro. My lessons begin at 9 o'clock. We have six lessons every day. At a
quarter to one we have a lunch hour.
I cannot get home for lunch, I take it at the diningroom of our technical
lunch I have meat or fish with potatoes and a cup of strong tea or coffee with
a pie. At ten minutes to three the lessons are over, and I go home. When I get
home from the technical school, I have dinner.
| British Art, Theatre, Music
|There was little pictorial art in England until
the great miniaturists of the Tudor epoch. There were portraits on a large
scale, but they were in the main, of foreign origin, notably Dutch like
Holbein. Then came Hogarth, the first great native painter born at the end of
the 17th century, famous for both engravings and oil paintings, he was followed
by Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792) famous for his portraits.
If Hogarth was the artist of the
towns, Gainsborough, contemporary of Reynolds, was the painter of the
countryside, frequently the background to his portraits. In a similar tradition
was Stubbs, as famous for his portraits of horses as of people.
Among the other portraitists of the
18th century were Romney, and Rae-burn. Constable (1776-1837) finally gave
landscape painting its importance. Among his near-contemporaries, though a
little younger, were William Blake, poet, visionary and painter, and Turner,
renowned above all for his naval scenes.
| Customs Service
|Chapter I - What is customs?
Customs is an authority or agency in
a country responsible for collecting and safeguarding customs duties and for
controlling the flow of goods including animals, personal effects and hazardous
items in and out of a country. Depending on local legislation and regulations,
the import or export of some goods may be restricted or forbidden, and the
customs agency enforces these rules. The customs may be different from the
immigration authority, which monitors persons who leave or enter the country,
checking for appropriate documentation, apprehending people wanted by
international arrest warrants, and impeding the entry of others deemed
dangerous to the country.
A customs duty is a tariff or tax on
the export of goods. In the Kingdom
of England, customs
duties were typically part of the customary revenue of the king, and therefore
did not need parliamentary consent to be levied, unlike excise duty, land tax,
or other forms of taxes.
| Finanzierung In Deutschland
|Fur uns ist Deutschland als Staat
mit der hoch entwickelten Wirtschaft sehr interessant, sofern unsere Wirtschaft
eine Erfahrung der Existenz unter Marktbedingungen braucht.
Die Tatigkeit des Betriebs steht bei
der Marktwirtschaft in engen Zusammenhang mit der Finanzierung. Finanzierung
wird als Beschaffen und Bereitstellen von Zahlungsmitteln fur betriebliche
Zwecke der verschiedensten Art definiert.
Die meisten der zu den einzelnen
Zeitpunkten im Betrieb fur Auszahlungen gleich welcher Art bereitgestellten
Zahlungsmittel stammen in der Regel aus dem Verkauf der betrieblichen
Leistungen auf den Absatzmarkten und der Verausserung nicht mehr benotigter –
meist materieller – Anlage- und Umlaufguter sowie aus dem fruher Dritten
vorubergehend gewahrter Zahlungsmittel.
| My Flat (1)
have a nice flat in a new block of flats. Our flat is on the fourth floor. It
has all modern conveniences: central heating, gas, electricity, cold and hot
water, a lift and a chute to carry rubbish down There are three rooms, a kitchen, a bathroom
and a hall in our flat.
The living-room is the largest and
most comfortable room in the flat. In the middle of the room we have a
square-table with six chairs round it. To the right of the dinner-table there
is a wall-unit which has several sections: a sideboard, a wardrobe and some
shelves. At the opposite wall there is a piano and stool before it. Between the
two large windows there is a little table with a colour TV set on it. Near the
TV set there are two cosy armchairs. A small round table, a divan-bed and a
standard lamp are in the left-hand corner. This small table is for newspapers
and magazines. My father is used to having a rest sitting on this divan-bed
reading books, newspapers, magazines or watching TV.
| English Has no Equals!
|English Has no Equals!
the 5th of September 1977, the American spacecraft Voyager One blasted off on its historic mission
to Jupiter and beyond. On board the scientists who knew that Voyager would one
day spin through distant star systems had installed a recorded greeting from
the people of the planet Earth. A brief message in fifty-five different
languages for the people of outer space plays a statement from the
Secretary-General of the United Nations an Austrian named Kurt Waldheim, speaking
on behalf of 147 member states in English. The rise of English is a remarkable
success story. When Julius Caesar landed in Britain nearly two thousand years ago,
English did not exist. Today English is used by at least 750 million people,
and barely half of those speak it as a mother tongue.
Some estimates have put that figure
closer to one billion. Whatever the total, English today is more widely spoken
and written, than any other language has ever been.
| The Subjects We Do at School
|The Subjects We Do at School. My Favourite Subject (1)
did quite a lot of subjects at school. They were: Physics, Mathematics,
Biology, Russian Literature, Chemistry, English, History of this country and
many other subjects. It was rather difficult to go to school when a
school-leaver, we had so much to do. I know that all the subjects are important
and they all must be payed much attention to, but still I didn't like exact
sciences. I spent much time on doing them at home. However hard I tried, all
those formulas and definitions were mixed up in my head and I couldn't make it
out after all. So I had nothing to do but sit for two or three hours swotting Physics,
Chemistry and Maths.
favourite subjects were Literature, History, English. Most of all I liked
English. I read English books, tried to translate some stories from newspapers
from English into Russian and vice versa.
| My School (1)
|My School (1)
you become older you realize that there are several essential things and places you always long to
come back to. They are your birthplace, your home and the school you went to.
My school was a three-storeyed
building situated in one of the residential districts of our city (town,
settlement). All the children from the neighbourhood went there because it was
a walking distance from their homes. There was a sports ground behind the
school-building and a green lawn with flower-beds in front of it.
The school was built a few years
ago. That's why its classrooms were light and spacious. There were three large
windows in each classroom with flower pots on the windowsills. It was pupils'
(especially girls') responsibility to water the flowers. And they did it with
utmost care. There were maps and portraits, tables and charts on the walls of
Our classroom was on the second
floor. Its windows faced the school-yard.
| About My Family
|About My Family
family is not very big, just a typical family: Dad, Mom, me, my brother and
sister and our cat. My Mummy is fortyone, she is a teacher of Spanish at the
University. She is a born teacher. She has teaching abilities. My Dad is
forty-two, he is a professional painter, he works for a design company. My
parents both like their work very much.
elder sister Natasha is nineteen, she goes to the University, she wants to be a
teacher of history. She is fond of reading books on history and fiction.
younger brother Igor is only six years old, he goes to the kindergarten. He is
very funny, I like to spend my free time teaching him something. Igor likes to
play with our cat. My grandparents are retired. They like gardening. They spend
a lot of their time in the garden. They grow vegetables and fruits. We enjoy
having fresh vegetables and green on our dinner table.
love my family very much. We always help each other.
| About Myself
of all let me introduce myself. My name is Taras. I'm seventeen years old. I'm
at 11-th grade. There are two more kids in the family besides me — my elder
brother Oleg and my younger sister Marija. Oleg is twenty-one, he attends a
University, he will be a dentist. Marija is only twelve, she is a schoolgirl. I
forgot to mention one more member of our family. It's our favourite poodle Tim.
parents are not old at all. My Mum is forty, she works for a newspaper. My Dad
is forty-four, he is an engineer in computers. My parents love their jobs very
much. I'm doing quite well at school. My parents are proud of my marks. I go in
for sports. I play basket-ball. In summer time I like yachting and windsurfing.
I take part in different basket-ball competitions. In a year I shall finish my
school and I have to decide what occupation to choose. I have been studying
English for seven years. I want to be a military interpreter.
grandparents are already retired.
| Yuri Gagarin — a Modern Columbus
|Yuri Gagarin — a Modern Columbus
April 12, 1961 will never be
forgotten. On that day Yuri Alexeyevich Gagarin was launched into space. He
circled the globe in the spaceship "Vostok" for 108 minutes. Gagarin
was taking an enormous risk, because at that time nobody knew how a human being
would stand up to space flight. Before Yuri Gagarin was launched into outer
space he met the people who had prepared the rocket. He thanked them for their
work and said he would do everything he could to make his flight successful. Yuri
was in great spirits. The cosmonauts spent the evening at a cottage which is
now called the Yuri Gagarin Memorial Cottage. Then he had one more normal
working day which was worked out to the minute: morning exercises, breakfast,
medical examination, putting on the spacesuit, checking the suit, leaving for
the launching site and so on.
Yuri Gagarin's flight opened the
door into the Universe Those 108 minutes were a turning-point in history.
Architecture the art of building in
which human requirements and construction materials are related so as to
furnish practical use as well as an aesthetic solution, thus differing from the
pure utility of engineering construction. As an art, architecture is essentially
abstract and nonrepresentational and involves the manipulation of the
relationships of spaces, volumes, planes, masses, and voids. Time is also an
important factor in architecture, since a building is usually comprehended in a
succession of experiences rather than all at once. In most architecture there
is no one vantage point from which the whole structure can be understood. The
use of light and shadow, as well as surface decoration, can greatly enhance a
analysis of building types provides an insight into past cultures and eras.
| Atomic Bomb
Atomic bomb [atomic bomb] or A-bomb,
weapon deriving its explosive force from the release of atomic energy through
the fission (splitting) of heavy nuclei (see nuclear energy ). The first atomic
bomb was produced at the Los Alamos, N.Mex., laboratory and successfully tested
on July 16, 1945. This was the culmination of a large U.S. army program that
was part of the Manhattan Project , led by Dr. Robert Oppenheimer . It began in
1940, two years after the German scientists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman
discovered nuclear fission. On Aug. 6, 1945, an atomic bomb was dropped on
Hiroshima with an estimated equivalent explosive force of 12,500 tons of TNT,
followed three days later by a second, more powerful, bomb on Nagasaki . Both
bombs caused widespread death, injury, and destruction, and there is still
considerable debate about the need to have used them.
| New York City
|New York City
City and port located at the mouth
of the Hudson River, southeastern New
York state, northeastern U.S. New York City is the centre
of the largest urban agglomeration in the United States. It occupies Manhattan and Staten
islands, the western end of Long Island, a portion of the mainland, and various
islands in New York Harbor and Long Island Sound. Its urban area extends into
neighbouring parts of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut.
York City is an ethnic melting pot where the most dramatic cultural contrasts
are commonplace. It is among the most geographically and demographically
complex of world cities, its economy one of the most diverse, and its cultural
scene among the richest and most variegated.
brief treatment of New York City follows. For full treatment, see New York
| The Old Arbat street, Moscow
|The Old Arbat street, Moscow
The Old Arbat is a picturesque
pedestrian street in Moscow,
running west from Arbat Square
(which is part of the Boulevard Ring) towards Smolenskaya Square (which is part of the
Garden Ring). The Old Arbat has the reputation of being Moscow's most
touristy street, with lots of entertainment and souvenirs sold. It is distinct
from the New Arbat, a street running parallel to it and lined with Soviet
skyscrapers made of steel, concrete, and glass.
first mention of the Arbat was in 1493 as a road leading from the Moscow
Kremlin to Smolensk. The origin of the name is Tatar and means suburb (the same
as Rabat). During the 16th and 17th centuries, the neighbourhood was graced
with elegant churches, notably the one featured in Vasily Polenov's celebrated
painting A Courtyard in Moscow (1879).
the 18th century, the Arbat came to be regarded by the Russian nobility as the
most prestigious living area in Moscow.
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